Trabzon is the emerald green city of The Black Sea coast. Its history goes as back as 2000 B.C. However, the founders of Trabzon are unknown. The common belief is that the founders of the city came to Trabzon form Middle Asia through the Caucasus .

The name of the city was first citied in Xenophon's book “Anabasis” as “Trapezos”. The city took this name from the table-like shape of Ortahisar and Yukarihisar areas, which were the centre of the ancient city. Xenophon stated in his book that there were several native tribes such as the Kolkhs, the Makrons, and the Drills. Recent studies have suggested that those tribes were the Turani.

In the 7th Century B.C., Trabzon was invaded by the Kimmers coming from the Caucasus . Despite the plunder of the city, their reign didn't last long. The Persians, having beat the Meds who had been planing to dominate the whole Anatolia for a long time, took over the region. In accordance with the Persian king, Dorapos I's policy converting people to the Persian culture, new settlements were formed and Trabzon was included in “Ponthus Cappadocia”, a big governorship. Yet, the Persian sovereignty came to an end as the Macedonian King, Alexander overwhelmed the region. Taking advantage of Alexander's death which caused huge turmoil, Mithrades, a Persian noble, established the Ponthus State near Çankiri and annexed Trabzon .

However, the sovereignty of the Ponthus Kingdom didn't last long in this region either. The Romans took control of the region after the war between 86 BC and 66 BC in the Kelkit valley where they beat Mithradates' army.

In Neron's period, the city was a “free province. During the Roman King Hadrion's reign many buildings such as religious and military buildings, roads, water belts were constructed; the port was built, some parts of the Ortahisar castle were restored and as a memorial to his services, a statue of the King was placed at Karlik Hill. Coins which had the Roman Kings'pictures on were also minted.

With the division of the Roman Empire in 395 BC, Trabzon had remained in the eastern Roman borders. Many churches were restored, city walls were fixed, and water belts were constructed during the Emperor Justinianus. The empire was divided into military sections in Neroclios's time and the region, which was strategically significant because of the “sasanli” wars, were united under the name “Khaldia Thema” having Trabzon as the centre.

After the Crusade Armies had invaded Istanbul and established a Latin State there, the Komnenos Kingdom was established by the grandchildren of the Emperor Andronikos Komnenos I, Alexis and David with the help of the Georgian Queen Tamara and then Trabzon was made the capital city.

The Komnenos Kingdom, which maintained its existence by paying taxes to the Seijuk State and the Akkoyunlu State and by having their daughters marry the Turkish Beys, whom they regarded as a threat, reached nearby Sinop, taking advantage of the lack of authority caused by the Mongolian preassure over Anatolia. Meanwhile, the Çepni Turks, brought from Iran and accommodated in Sinop, prevented the Komnenos Kingdom from spreading policies and forced it to maintain its existence around Trabzon as in the past. Coins were once again minted in their respective names, several significant reconstruction projects were put into action, and many religious buildings were constructed, remarkably the Ayasofya Church .

Right after conquering Istanbul in 1453, Fatih Sultan Mehmet started making necessary preparations to send the navy and the army to Trabzon , which was believed to play a very important and vital role in securing the eastern borders of the Empire. The army commanded by Fatih himself seized Trabzon in 1461 and soon after, the Komnenos Kingdom surrendered, thus Trabzon became a Turkish province. Fatih left the province after a couple of days and appointed Kazim Bey as the governor of the city. Trabzon , which was ruled as an independent state for a while, had been called “the city as Sultan's son” with the appointment of Prince Ahmet, Bayezid II's son as a governor (sanjanbey).

Construction and housing improved a lot in Trabzon soon after Yavuz Sultan Selim had been appointed as a governor. The Hatuniye Mosque and complex of buildings were built in 1515 in the name of his mother, Gülbahar Hatun. Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, who was also known by the westerns as “Süleyman the Great” was born in 1495, in Trabzon . He spent his first ten years of his childhood in this city, where he got his primary education. After his being the Ottoman Sultan, Trabzon was made the capital of the province united with Batum. The Iskenderpasa Mosque and Theological school and fountains were built during the governorship of Iskenderpasa, who had served as a governor in Trabzon four times between the years 1512-1533. Subsequent governors also continued with construction and housing. These public works. In 1741 the Trabzon city walls were restored and the “Moloz Bastion” was constructed. The Saraçhane Library in 1762, the Saraçhane Medreseh ( Moslem Theological School ) in 1850, the Çarsi Mosque in 1851, the Pazarkapi Medreseh ( Moslem Theological School ) in 1851 and a stone dock was constructed in Degirmendere in 1894.

After the Sarikamis defeat on December the 22nd, 1914 just after the Ottoman Empires' participation in World War I, the Russian Army invaded Artvin and started to move along the coast with the help of the navy. To stop the Russian Army, which invaded Rize on March the 8th, 1916, the people's forces composed of the volunteers from neighboring villages and towns heroically fought against the Russians at different fronts nearby Madurdagi ridges. Despite hundreds of martyrs, the struggle carried on but they couldn't stop the Russian army invading Trabzon .

After the Russian Army had decided in leave the region in accordance with the agreement signed, the Armenians behind the front line started massacring the local people. Turkish forces then moved into the city on February 24th, 1918 and took the province back once again.

Atatürk paid three visits to Trabzon : September 15- 17 1924, October 27- 29 1930 and June 10 - 12 1937 and be made significant decisions about “National Histwy” “Praying in Turkish” “Political democracy” and “The donation of land to the state.”